Significance and Verification
In Chapter XXI, I considered what may have been thought a parody of empiricism, and decided against it. I did not mean to decide against all possible forms of empiricism, but only to bring out certain implications of what is generally accepted as scientific knowledge, which seem to me to be insufficiently realized by most modem empiricists. It will serve to give precision to what I am asserting to compare it with opinions with which I am very nearly in agreement. For this purpose, I shall, in the present chapter, examine in detail certain parts of Carnap's "Testability and Meaning".* This is an important and careful analysis; in particular, his distinction between "Reduction" and "Definition" throws much light on the theory of scientific method. In so far as I have any disagreement with Carnap's views, this arises almost entirely from my belief that he begins rather too late in his analyses, and that certain prior problems, to which the present work is mainly devoted, are more important than he would be inclined to admit. This opinion I shall now proceed to defend controversially.