chapter
3 Pages

Contents

Tables 9

The role of transport history 13 Earlier development of land and water transport 15 Effect of urban growth and the rise of the coal

industry 20 Improvement of water transport 22 Land transport c. 1550-c. 1750: coaches, wagons,

posting and the beginnings of raiI\vays 25

2 THE CANAL AGE The makings of a canal network 36 The mania and after 42 Road freight transport 44 Road passenger transport 47 Roadmaking 52

3 THE EARLY RAILWAY AGE The origins of the steam railway 56 The beginning of the Railway Age 58 The impact of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway

and the growth of a railway network 63 Steamboats and coastal traffic 70 Railways and the State 72 Economic consequences of railways 77

4 RAILWAYS 1850-1914 Railway development and governnlcnt policy,

1850--72 85 5

The Select Committee of 1872 and the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1873 93

Better services and rising costs amid falling prices, 1873-96 96

Legislation, 1888-94 104 Progress in more difficult circumstances, 1896-1914 108

Highways, 1835-88 120 Horse-drawn traffic in the nineteenth century 123 The mechanization of road transport 131 Highways, 1888-1914 143

The background to railway policy after 1921 145 The Railways Act of 1921 147 The operation of the 1921 Railways Act 153

The spread of car ownership between the wars 160 Development of motor bus services 161 Structure and organization of road passenger

transport 165 Road goods transport 173 Road and rail competition between the wars 181

Introduction 186 Highways and highway policy 187 The regulation of road passenger transport 192 The regulation of road goods transport 202 Transport coordination 208

Perspective Railways, 1939-64 Road transport, 1939-64 Transport developments 1964-73 Retrospect

Notes and references Index

211 216 228 233 247