chapter  III
Primitive Grammar,
Pages 40

The Zulu word for " man " is i/miiniu ; every word in the same or in a following sentence having any

reference to that word must begin with something to remind you of the beginning of nmuntu. This will be, according to fixed rules, either nni or ti or w or in. In the following sentence, the meaning of which is " our handsome man (or woman) appears, we love him (or her)," these reminders (as I shall term them) are printed in italics :— uinuntn weXw omuchle ?/yabonakala, siz/ztanda. (1)

man ours handsome appears we love. If, instead of the singular, we take the corresponding plural abmitu, " men, people " (whence the generic name of Bantu), the sentence looks quite different:— abavAxi ^etu abachle /^ayabonakala, si/'<3;tanda. (2)

3 5 . (16) In the same way if we successively take as our starting-point ilizwe " country," the corresponding plural aniazwe " countries," isizwe " nation," izizwe "nat ions ," intombi "gir l ," izintombi " g i r l s / ' we ge t :— iiizwc /etu <?/zchle /zyabonakala, si/ztanda. (5) amazsN& etu amac\AQ. <2:yabonakala, sizf^tanda. (6) isizwQ j-etu esichXc ^zyabonakala, sij-z'tanda. (7) izizwe zQtn ezic\\\& ^z'yabonakala, si^/tanda. (8) iniovahi j e t u enchle zyabonakala, sij//tanda. (9) izintombi zetu ezinchle ^/yabonakala, si^/tanda. (10)

(girls) our handsome appear we love. ^ In other words, every substantive belongs to one

of sixteen distinct classes (termed by different authors declensions, species, concords, genera, principationes), of which some have a singular and others a plural meaning ; each of these classes has its own " derivative prefix," to use Bleek's expression,^ and by means of this class-sign the concord of the parts of a sentence is indicated. In the following example the same verb will be seen to have two reminders, one from the subject of the same sentence, and another from that of the preceding sentence :— itkutaxid^. kiietxx <?/i'«kulu Z'^/yabonakala, ABAntu

love our great appears men BAkuhons., siy^;<bonakalisa. (15)

(they) (it) see we it make appear. This example serves also to show us the resources of the language in other respects {tanda, ukutanda ; bona " see," bonakala " appear," bonakalisa " make appear ").