chapter  11
Pages 18

THE ABUNDANT USE OF NAZI AND HOLOCAUST SYMBOLS and unconscious fantasies by patients in no way directly affected by the Third Reich reflects the degree to which the Holocaust's cataclysmic recasting of human history (Moses, 1993) has wrought a change in internalized human history as well. Before considering the technical issues involved in treating the consequences of that change, however, we wish to emphasize that we belong to that group of clinicians who, as Peter Giovacchini (2000) writes, "have roamed freely in the realms of object relations but have not forsaken thinking in terms of intrapsychic forces conflicting with each other, which, in some circles, has become politically incorrect" (p. 87). We do not regard as properly psychoanalytic any therapeutic process that depends on ideas that are more philosophical than clinical, or that fails to take into account intrapsychic unconscious factors, such as the influence of unconscious fantasies, mental conflicts, defenses, resistances, and transference neuroses. We consider ourselves in the mainstream of psychoanalysis.