Written by renowned experts in the field, this book assesses the status of groundwater models and defines models and modeling needs in the 21st century. It reviews the state of the art in model development and application in regional groundwater management, unsaturated flow/multiphase flow and transport, island modeling, biological and virus transport, and fracture flow. Both deterministic and stochastic aspects of unsaturated flow and transport are covered. The book also introduces a unique assessment of models as analysis and management tools for groundwater resources. Topics covered include model vs. data uncertainty, accuracy of the dispersion/convection equation, protocols for model testing and validation, post-audit studies, and applying models to karst aquifers.