The Cold Warrior
A physically decimated, debilitated and emotionally distraught nation was now called upon to restore its shattered economy. Over onequarter of the industrial capacity of the Soviet Union had been destroyed, and in those areas occupied by the enemy the proportion was even higher, around 65 per cent. In particular, the heavy industries such as iron, steel and fuel, which had been given special emphasis during the ﬁve-year plans, were badly hit. Hundreds of factories, foundries, mines and workshops had been either devastated in the ﬁghting or demolished by the scorched-earth policies of the retreating armies, both Russian and German. What could be saved had been transported east and relocated in a desperate programme of territorial diversiﬁcation of industry which successfully enhanced production levels after the initial onslaught. Over 300 entire enterprises and their workforces were uprooted, trans-shipped and reassembled in Siberia.