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17 Pages

Combining Explicit Timing with an Interdependent Group Contingency Program to Decrease Transition Times: An Investigation of the Timely Transitions Game

Researchers investigating opportunities to respond have found that increasing the number of accurate, active, academic responses enhances learning (e.g., Greenwood, Delquadri, & Hall, 1984). Two general strategies for increasing opportunities to respond include increasing student response rates and making more time available for learning (Gettinger, 1995; Skinner, Belfiore, Mace, Williams, & Johns, 1997). Making more time available by adding days to the school year (e.g., increase school days per year from 180 to 220) or increasing years in school (e.g., pre-school and graduate school) can enhance learning but are expensive strategies that reduce time available for other behaviors (Skinner, Belfiore, & Watson, 1995/2002). Other strategies increase time available for learning activities by reducing time spent engaged in non-academic activities, such as time spent transitioning from one room to another (Paine, 1983).