23 Pages

Use of Delayed Praise as a Directive and Its Effectiveness on On-Task Behavior

Classroom interventions to improve attention to curricular tasks have historically included cognitive-behavioral techniques, designed to teach problem-solving strategies; medications, designed to increase attention and decrease excess activity; and behavioral management techniques, designed to reinforce task-focused behavior while decreasing inappropriate behaviors (Kronenberger & Meyer, 2001). While cognitive-behavioral interventions have demonstrated some effectiveness with executive functions such as problem-solving strategies, the extensive teacher time required to train students to use the strategies paired with low generalization across settings limits its application. Thus, cognitive-behavioral techniques have not received widespread support as classroom-based interventions for specific cognitive skills such as attention (DuPaul & Stoner, 1994; Frazier & Merrell, 1997).