Cocaine/crack is the source of more professional and public concern than any other illicit drug. It is the sole illicit substance whose use was on the increase through the mid-1980s (Schuster, 1988). Treatment for cocaine/crack abuse is still in its infancy (Kleber & Gawin, 1984; Millman, 1988; Rosecan, Spitz, & Gross, 1987; Washton & Gold, 1987), and research about abuse of the drug is also relatively sparse. There are few follow-up studies of cocaine abusers (Waldorf, Murphy, & Reinarman, 1988; Wallace, 1989) and little information about use patterns over time. As with other addictive drugs, there is uncertainty about recovery and the extent to which treatment affects the recovery process (Schachter, 1982). The sample discussed here consists of persons who applied for outpatient treatment of cocaine/crack abuse in New York City during 1988-1989, with special emphasis on those who were reinterviewed six to 12 months after initial contact with the program.