Hydraulic Aspects of River Training Works in Tidal Rivers
The training of a river involves construction of structures across or along a stream to achieve certain objectives. These include levees built along the length of the stream to contain floods, and spurs and guide-banks to alter the local flow conditions, in other words to guide the flow. Dredging is likewise extensively resorted to in training a river, mainly for navigational purposes, but also to divert the flow into secondary channels or to execute cut-offs of the main stream to reduce the flood level. The various alterations and river training works further include measures for protection of banks, either directly through pitching or indirectly by construction of spurs. Rivers normally carry a huge quantity of run-off waters from the catchment area along with suspended and bed loads in the non-tidal reach. Improvement of river mouths requires installation of artificial works such as training walls or jetties to increase velocities for carrying the river load farther down.