The next version of primary education comes from 1988, a year after the government announced its intended legislative programme covering the National Curriculum, assessment, delegated school budgets and 'opting out', but before any of these were implemented. The version of primary education in question is that provided by one LEA as part of an ambitious reform programme whose provisions were very different from those of the 1988 Act. Where the Act saw curriculum, assessment and accountability as the means of raising standards, the LEA concentrated on classroom practice and the physical environment of learning. The study is one of several undertaken as part of the large-scale evaluation of these reforms, and it uses a combination of observation and interviews to portray and probe behind the practice of some sixty primary teachers. The study is continued in Chapter 4.