Enuresis and encopresis
Definitions The development of bladder and bowel control occurs in a stage-wise manner in most children during the first five years of life (Buchanan, 1992; Fielding and Doleys, 1988; Shaffer, 1994). Enuresis and encopresis -the absence of bladder and bowel control by the age of four or five years-have a negative impact on children's social and educational development and so may be a focus for clinical intervention. Children with elimination problems may be excluded from school, ostracized by their peers and they may develop conflictual relationships with their parents. This in turn can lead to the development of academic attainment problems, low self-esteem, and secondary emotional or conduct problems.