The End of Spanish Rule, 1810–1821
THIS CHAPTER FIRST CONSIDERS GRIEVANCES THAT ACCUMULATED during the first decade of the nineteenth century. These grievances led to a revolt led by two priests, Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos. After royalist forces repeatedly defeated rebel armies, the insurgents turned to guerrilla warfare. In response to the rebellion, the Crown sought to maintain, or regain, Mexicans’ loyalty through such measures as abolishing tribute, allowing elections, and establishing new local governments. After more than a decade of combat a royalist officer, Agustín Iturbide, brought together royalist forces and rebels to form a coalition that rejected Spanish rule. This chapter concludes by considering the role of various social groups during the revolt, the economic impact of the independence struggle, and U.S. policy toward Spanish American rebellion.