THIS CHAPTER CONSIDERS TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY MEXICO. It begins with a description of how formal democracy has functioned under the presidencies of Vicente Fox, Felipe Calderón, and Enrique Peña Nieto. It also describes how the major parties have evolved since the inauguration of Fox in 2000. The chapter then considers societal changes since 2000. Next is a description of how the Mexican economy has performed and what impact the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had after its being in force for twenty years. Finally, there is a description of how U.S.–Mexican relations have evolved during the administrations of George W. Bush and Barack Obama.