Resting Metabolic Rate
Resting metabolic rate (RMR), also called resting energy expenditure, is defined by the am ount of energy an individual expends to maintain bodily integrity while at rest. It includes the energy cost of such activity as pumping blood, maintaining hom eotherm y, and so forth. Variations in RMR, which constitutes approximately 65% of total daily energy expenditure in sedentary persons (Ravussin, Lillioja, Andersen, Christin, & Bogardus, 1986), have been shown to longitudinally predict weight gain (Ravussin et al., 1988) as well as weight loss on a fixed intake (Garrow, Durant, & M ann, 1981). Until quite recently, there were no data available on the com parative metabolic rates of European Americans and African Americans (Ku manyika, 1987). However, a few studies have recently addressed this issue (Albu et al., 1996; Foster, W adden, & Vogt, 1997; Jakicic & W ing, 1996; Yanovski et al., 1996). These studies are remarkable in their consistency. Each one found that, after controlling for body com position, African Americans had a lower RM R than European Americans. The results o f these studies have been summ arized meta-analytically (Hedges & Olkin, 1985) in Table 6.