chapter  15
13 Pages

Industrial Landscapes

Five principal characteristics do set manufacturing in this period apart from earlier times. First, the scale of production was larger, often concentrated in workshops or even small factories, away from the domestic realm. This was necessary, second, because of the larger and more complex machinery becoming available and the increase of demand for consumer goods. The gathering together of workers was a third feature, requiring greater labour discipline about wages and hours of work and the divisions of tasks than had been known before. Inevitably there were clashes of interest between the workers and the factory owners on this point. Fourth, such a regulated environment allowed a greater control over the quality and standardization of the final product, bearing in mind the demands of the customer, although mechanized manufacturing excelled in coarser goods for the low end of the market. Finally, the new factory industry became increasingly urban-based for ease of labour recruitment and transport.