chapter  21
12 Pages

Globalized landscapes

The answer given by Frank and Gills (1993) is that the world economy is about 5000 years old. They date it from 2700-2400 Be when the significant trading of surplus commodities emerged between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia. It is no coincidence that both of these were regions of hydraulic civilization (Chapter 3) where the environment had already come under partial control through the application of irrigation water to cereals. The expanding realm of the interconnected world system thereafter was accompanied by human modification of a broader range of ecologies.