chapter  1
14 Pages

Introduction /

The five motivational systems are: (1) the need for psychic regulation of physiological requirements, (2) the need for attachmentaffiliation, (3) the need for exploration and assertion, (4) the need to react aversively through antagonism or withdrawal, and (5) the need for sensual enjoyment and sexual excitement. During infancy, each system contributes to self-regulation in mutually regulatory interactions with caregivers. At each period of life, the fundamental needs and the wishes, desires, aims, and goals that derive from those needs in each motivational system may be rearranged in dif-· ferent hierarchies indicated by different conscious and unconscious preferences, choices, and proclivities. From moment to moment, the activity of anyone system may be intensified to the point where it provides motivational dominance of the self. The "self" develops as an independent center for initiating, organizing, and integrating

motivation. The sense of self arises from experiencing that initiating, organizing, and integrating. Experiencing has an active (agent) and passive (receptor) mode.