Bernard and Carmen (1986) conducted a study with 170 graduate students in 25 APA-approved clinical training programs. They asked the students what they should do in a hypothetical situation in which a friend violated an ethical principle. When the same students were asked what they would do, approximately half said they would do less than they knew they should. Bernard and Carmen concluded that the participants understood the behavior was in ethical violation, but they chose not to behave in an ethical manner. The problem was not one of misunderstanding (ignorance of the ethical mandate), but of mot ivation. The authors concluded, "Psychologists need to carefully examine this question and to arrive at ways to reorder priorities so that their responsibility to monitor their own practice is taken more seriously" (p. 315).