chapter  2
31 Pages

Psychoanalysis and racism

The first instinctual theory The first instinctual duality postulated by Freud consisted of the selfpreservative instincts and the sexual instincts (1910a). The concern of the first instinct was to preserve the individual self, whilst the concern of the second instinct was to perpetuate the species through procreation. Freud says that the two instincts have no regard for each other, and so each unwittingly finds itself in conflict with the other. Most crudely, this might occur when the organism's urge to express the sexual instinct puts itself in danger. This theory encapsulates the idea that the interests of the group are inevitably and necessarily in conflict with the interests of the individual. What we have here then, is the idea that conflict is an inevitability structured into

The other route that hatred uses to enter Freud's schema is on the back of the first division - between the internal and the external. The fact that the external world inevitably stimulates is experienced by the ego as unpleasure. Consequently, during the solipsistic period of auto-eroticism 'the egosubject coincides with what is pleasurable and the external world with what is indifferent (or possibly unpleasurable, as being a source of stimulation)' (Freud 1915a: 135).