chapter  1
Identity and Insecurity
Pages 26

The Heads of State and delegations call upon the international community to condemn vigorously the ethnic and political genocide ideology used in competition for conquest and monopoly of power [in Rwanda and Burundi] Declaration of the Heads of State and Government of the African Great Lakes Region, Cairo, 29 November 1995

As soon as a man has surrendered himself to the crowd, he ceases to fear its touch. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power

Political and Social Background Since 1994, Rwanda has been indissolubly linked with genocide. Its neighbour, Burundi, has also been associated with a high and continuing level of violence. The tragedy of both lies in population pressures, a vicious interaction of events between the two countries that eventually involved neighbouring Zaire as well, and the calculated use over the past 30 years of ethnicity as an instrument of political mobilisation.