An Appraisal of Expectancies, Safety Signals and the Treatment of Panic Disorder Patients: W. L. Marshall
It has been suggested (e.g., Beck, Emery, & Greenberg, 1985; Clark, l986a; Rachman, 1984a) that cognitive factors are relevant to the development and modification of panic disorders. Beck, Clark, and Salkovski (see chapters in this volume) propose that catastrophizing thoughts are crucial to the maintenance of these problems and that such thoughts must be changed if treatment is to be effective. These remarks are very much in the tradition of cognitive therapy, which in recent years has turned to experimental cognitive psychology for its theoretical referents and practical strategies (see chapters by Chambless and Teasdale in this volume). Rachman, on the other hand, derives his analyses from the study of basic learning processes in animals where the consideration of cognitive factors has excited interest over the past 10 years (Hulse, Fowler, & Honig, 1976). From these sources Rachman has recognized the possibility of applying what amounts to an analysis of the role of expectancies, to the understanding of the development and treatment of panics.