Assessment of Panic: Samuel M. Turner, Deborah C. Beidel and Rolf G. jacob
By what appears to have been a semantic drift, "anticipatory anxiety," as discussed by Klein, became the equivalent of "general anxiety" or "chronic anxiety,'' while panic or endogenous anxiety retained a unique status (Liebowitz, 1985). It is unclear how the "pharmacological dissection" just described contributed to separating the categories of generalized anxiety and panic. Of course, as Klein (1964) pointed out, pharmacological dissection, although useful as a generator of hypotheses, cannot be considered as a diagnostic criterion by itself. Drug response cannot be the sole determinant of diagnostic classification because the effects of drugs are not discrete or unitary, and the mechanisms of action of most psychotropic drugs are not fully understood. For example, Detre (1985) noted that although Dilantin, an anticonvulsant, has proven effective in treating ventricular ectopic rhythms, few would call for the reclassification of cardiac arrhythmias or consider arrhythmia as an epilepsy equivalent. Similar restraint in interpreting various biological tests has been urged by Ross ( 1986).