The external environment for tourism, hospitality and event organizations: the macro context
Introduction and chapter overview Tourism, hospitality and events entities – whether hotels, tour operators, travel agencies, event managers, etc. – function as open systems in that they interact with, respond to, and are affected by their external environment (Coulter, 2002; Jogaratnam and Law, 2006). Thus having an understanding of the external environment is of critical importance to most managers. Gaining such an understanding is sometimes termed environmental scanning or horizon scanning, but here we will refer to it as macro-environmental analysis (see for example Fleisher and Bensoussan, 2003:Ch. 17).