Application 2: Testing the Factorial Validity of Scores from a Measuring Instrument (First-Order CFA Model)
For our second application, we once again examine a first-order CF A model. However, this time we test hypotheses bearing on a single measuring instrument, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981, 1986), designed to measure three dimensions of burnout that the authors termed Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Reduced Personal Accomplishment (PA). The term burnout denotes the inability to function effectively in one's job as a consequence of prolonged and extensive job-related stress; emotional exhaustion represents feelings of fatigue that develop as one's energies become drained; depersonalization is the development of negative and uncaring attitudes towards others; and reduced personal accomplishment is a deterioration of self-confidence and a dissatisfaction in one's achievements. Indeed, the escalation and prevalence of burnout among members of the teaching profession over this past decade has been of great concern to both educational administrators and clinicians. Largely, as a consequence of the international scope of the burnout problem, there is now a plethora of research on the topic (for a review of this international literature, see Byrne, in press).