The schizoid personality disorder has been recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome, in one form or another, since shortly after the tum of the century. The description of schizoid persons initially referred to those nonpsychotic but strange and often isolated individuals who seemed to exist as close relatives of schizophrenics. Later, due to the work of the object relations theorists, the concept evolved and began to denote patients who demonstrated a tendency, often quite marked, toward directing their attention to their own inner worlds and away from the external world. These patients often showed excessive withdrawal or introversion and a general avoidance of human relationships. They, however, were not to be confused with schizophrenic patients; rather, they represented distortions, or pathological elaborations, of factors or tendencies to be found in all individuals.