The assessment of maladaptation by means of the patient's specific response to psychoanalysis has not gained general currency because it is so difficult to correlate with the patient's customary behavior outside the treatment setting. The psychoanalytic situation has been designed to alter the balance of the forces that determine the nature of overt behavior in the direction of bringing to the fore repudiated motives from the childhood past, or, if you will, of diminishing the use of the person's characteristic defensive operations. In analyses progressing in optimal fashion, not only can we note a therapeutic asplit" (Sterba, 1934) between the capacity for affectively charged experience and self-observationj at the same time, the analysand's total behavior in the analytic setting may shift in the direction of repeating patterns typical for various periods of childhood, while his adaptation outside the consulting room may become more appropriate for an adult, as the locus of the transference enactments gradually narrows to the analytic situation. This finding accounts for the fact that analysts often under estimate their patients' adaptive resources. Conversely, the friends and families of analysands may be bewildered by the insistence of these seemingly healthy people on continuing to seek psychological assis tance for many years.