In contrast to the temporary loss in adult capacity of the foregoing kind, communication disorders based on apraxia more frequendy involve ignorance of the rules of human discourse rather than lack of mastery of language itself. In the last chapter, I alluded to an analysand (previously described at length in Gedo [1984, ch. 5]) whose pervasive illusions permitted and forced her to get along, as best she could, by identifications with severely traumatized parents, both of whom had barely survived lengthy concentration camp experiences under the Nazis. This woman literally did not know how to conduct a conver sation: she neither listened to what other people attempted to say to her nor talked in order to impart information to her listeners. Instead of using speech for two-way communication, she tuned out others in order to prepare herself for the next opportunity to take the floor (or seize it unexpectedly!) and used her turn to speak to create maximal impact on an audience, in the manner of a nightclub entertainer who aims to excite, please, and astonish.