As my coauthor and I demonstrated in Models of the Mind (Gedo and Goldberg, 1973, p. 157) the most primitive modes of mentation are reproduced in adult life only in traumatic states. To be sure, these traumatic contingencies may occasionally arise for brief periods in the course of long-term aillnesses" that are classified as psychoses. As already shown in the pioneering work of Charcot (1877-1 889), psy chic trauma is equally characteristic of hysteria-or, to put this into a vocabulary better suited to our time, of adaptive disturbances securely within the spectrum of the aneuroses." It is true that the occurrence of such conditions is relatively uncommon within the psychoanalytic setting, for the aholding environment" (Winnicott, 1960) provided by that setting generally will not-and should not! -overwhelm the analysand's integrative capacities.