I n the clinical chapters to follow, I have chosen to concentrateon three patient groups in which shame dynamics can be exam-ined: obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorders, and masochistic personality disorders. Other diagnostic groups could have been chosen as easily; in fact, any group of people would serve since shame concerns are widely distributed. Attempts to define and make use of the particular categories selected and to place individuals within them brought, at times, a dismaying sense of the classifications as highly overlapping, with respect to membership and to dynamics. As descriptions of readily observable stylistic or behavioral features
of individuals, the categories are a bit more separable, yet even so, two or even all three of the classifications occasionally describe features of one person.