An Intersubjective Approach to Conjoint Family Therapy: David Shaddock
In the Epilogue to The Restoration of the Self, Heinz Kohut (1977), seeking to understand the increase in the number of self disorders he observed, turned his attention to the changing nature of family process: "The environment which used to be experienced as threateningly close, is now experienced more and more as threateningly distant; where children were formerly over stimulated by the emotional (including the erotic) life of their parents, they are now often under stimulated" (p. 271). These speculations, which shift the focus of the study of intrapsychic life from universal psychological structures to those that arise in the context of a relational field, foreshadow the paradigm shift that Stolorow (1994) calls the "most important development in psychoanalysis over the past decade . . . the growing recognition that intrapsychic phenomenon must be understood in the context of the larger interaction systems in which they take form" (p. 3).