chapter  4
16 Pages


We have noted the ever-present role of subtle or overt parental encouragement or license in the early development of disavowal. For the most part, this phenomenon is seen in cases that manifest a clear, conscious separation of one way of behaving from that of another, that is, in cases that are designated either as narcissistic personality disorders or narcissistic behavior disorders. There is a more ubiquitous, but perhaps less clear occurrence of the split, however, found in certain states of disavowal in which the existence of the parallel personality yields little comfort or pleasure. The individual who suffers from this form of split regularly becomes overwhelmed by a dysphoria more akin to familiar psychological misfortunes such as seen in anxiety and depression rather than a specific behavioral activity. Thus it is proposed that disavowal and the vertical split span a host of maladaptations, with their origins to be found in particular forms of parental pathology.