chapter  5
Multiple intelligences: if everyone’s smart, no one is
Pages 7

You will have heard, of course, that people do not have one simple level of intelligence, from stupid to smart; they have many varying types of intelligence. This idea was put forward by the psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983 as an alternative to the traditional idea of IQ, or a singular type of ‘smart’. The idea was seized upon by the educational academic community and, certainly by the time I entered the pro fession, it was one of the pillars of modern education. As we shall see, how are the mighty fallen.