James set himself the task of trying to understand how consciousness could ‘slip in’ without recourse to a mind-stuff, mind-dust or soul. This is essentially the task we face today. But before we tackle it, note that there are two other questions with which it should not be confused. The ﬁ rst is, ‘When does consciousness arise during human development?’. For example, is an unfertilised egg or a human foetus conscious? and if not, when does a baby or a child become conscious? The second is, ‘which creatures alive today are conscious?’ (Chapter 15).