Table 10.1 shows the distribution of end-of-year reading scores for tested first-through third-grade students. The categories represent tO-percentile groupings of the national distribution of ITBS scores. (Thus, for example, among first graders, the lowest tenth of scores within the national percentile are those below a grade-equivalent of 1.2, interpreted as "mastering the material taught in the second month of first grade.") We see that among the 8,122 Dallas first graders tested near the close of spring 1995,52 percent ended the year below the national average grade-level score of 1.8. Among the 7,759 tested second graders, 54 percent ended the year below the average grade-level score of 2.8. Among the 7,812 tested third graders, 66 percent ended the year below the national average grade-level score of 3.8.