The Behavioural Domain
The BPS has produced guidelines on the treatment of challenging behaviour, which broadly follow the approach of Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) (BPS, 2004). This was earlier described as referring to: ‘those interventions that involve altering deﬁcient environmental conditions (eg activity patterns, choice options, prompting procedures) and/or deﬁcient behaviour repertoires (eg communication, self-management, social skills)’ (Carr et al, 1999: 7-8). Helping people achieve an improved quality of life is central to this approach (Carr et al, 2002). It represents a fusion of the scientiﬁc rigour of behaviourism with a humanistic concern to meet the needs and rights of people, particularly with those described as having ‘challenging behaviour’ (see, for example, Clements, 2002; Emerson, 2001; La Vigna and Willis, 2005).