chapter  5
23 Pages

The central state and the rural mines

There has been broad consensus, certainly among educated people in the cities, that the social costs of the TVMs far outweigh the benefits, a consensus promoted also by the rent-seeking activities of large mines attempting to close down their competitors. As a result, the state has made a series of attempts to control or eliminate the rural mines, most prominently the ‘close the pits and reduce coal production’ initiative that reached its height in 1999-2001 and the renewed efforts from 2005 to consolidate the TVMs. This chapter analyses the sometimes conflicting aims of the state and the constraints on its success.1