chapter  19
What Is Wrong With Roskill?
Pages 10

Therearetwopointstonoticeaboutsucha judg­ ment.First,nothingissaidabout existinginstitutions, economic,politicalorlegal.Butinordertobeavalid judgment,thecriterionadoptedmustbeindependentof existinginstitutions.Thisisfarfrombeinganesoteric refinement,asweshallseelateron.Secondly,andmore obviousperhaps,suchajudgmentdoesnotrequirethat everyoneshallbemadebetteroff,oreventhatsome peopleshallbemadebetteroffwhilenoothersare madeworseoff.Thelikelihood-avirtualcertainty­ thatsomepeople,possiblymost,willbemadeworseoff istacitlyacknowledged.Thecriterionismetsimplyifit canbeestablishedthat,ontheadoptionoftheproject, hypotheticallycostlesstransfersofmoneycouldmake everyoneaffectedbetteroffthanhewasbefore.A projectadmittedonacost-benefitanalysisis,therefore, quiteconsistentwithaneconomicarrangementwhich makestherichricherandthepoorpoorer.Itis consistentalsowithtransparentinequity:irrespective oftheincomegroupsinvolved,theopportunitiesfor increasedprofitorpleasureprovidedbythenewproject mayinflictdirectandsubstantialinjuryonothers.