Carbon management in cities
Whichever way we count the emission of GHGs (i.e. production based or consumption based), urban areas account for the lion’s share of the world total emissions. A production based apportionment (i.e. allocating emissions to those who generate them) of GHGs will lead to approximately 71 per cent of the total emission being attributed to urban areas (IEA, 2010). If a consumption based apportionment (where emissions are allocated to those whose consumption caused the emissions) is used, urban share of the GHG emissions will be much higher, since
7.1 Introduction 99 7.1.1 Data on global cities and their carbon emissions 100 7.2 Broad strategies for urban carbon management 103 7.3 Carbon management in developed cities 105 7.3.1 Shelter 105 7.3.2 Mobility 106 7.3.3 Lifestyle 106 7.4 Carbon management in developing cities 123 7.4.1 Mobility 123 7.4.2 Shelter 124 7.4.3 Design of the ‘commons’ 125 7.4.4 Food 126 7.4.5 Lifestyle 127 7.5 Urban adaptation strategies to manage climate change 132 7.5.1 Adapting to urban warming – planning approaches to tackle the urban heat
island 132 7.5.2 Adapting to flooding, sea level rise and coastal erosion 136 7.6 Management of urban carbon through spatial planning 138 7.6.1 Key challenges 138 7.7 Barriers to low carbon cities 139 7.7.1 Management and culture 139 7.7.2 Planning and design barriers 140 7.7.3 Data and technical barriers 140 7.7.4 Individual lifestyles and behaviour change 141 References 141
emissions from a whole range of sectors (such as agriculture, forestry and commodities) will have to be included (Hoornweg, Sugar and Gómez, 2011). While it may be tempting to assign ‘emission blame’ to cities, it must be remembered that cities drive the national economies of most nations. In other words, urban consumption (and therefore associated emissions) benefits not only cities but also the countries where cities are located (see Dodman, 2009).