Operational and embodied carbon in buildings
Measures to reduce carbon in the built environment take the form of the following: reduce operational energy (and therefore carbon) in buildings; reduce embodied carbon in building materials and construction; and switch to low carbon fuels or use renewable energy (Levine et al., 2007). Chapter 4 outlined key approaches and technologies to low carbon or renewable fuels and micro-generation at site. Chapters 5-7 dealt largely with ways to reduce the need for operational energy in buildings. In this chapter we explore carbon embodied in buildings as well as broad strategies to manage energy in use.