Is It Aggression?: Perceptions of and Motivations for Passive and Psychological Aggression: Deborah South Richardson and Georgina S. Hammock
T his chapter reviews programs of research on correlates and perceptions of “everyday” forms of aggression that often are not considered in tradi-tional aggression research. These studies reveal that everyday passive and psychological aggression are often motivated by intentions other than the intention to cause harm (e.g., inducing guilt), although the effect is to harm the target. Similarly, comparison of perceptions of psychological and physical aggression reveal that psychological aggression, which is de–ned in terms of harming an individual’s self-regard, may be perceived as less damaging than physical aggression, although the potential for long-term harm is greater (e.g., Follingstad, Rutledge, Berg, Hause, & Polek, 1990).