Moralistic and ethical writings
The following section is taken from the tractate Avot in the Mishnah. The title translates as “fathers” and derives from the tractate’s opening section that enumerates the great sages who transmitted the Torah (pre sumably, the oral tradition) from Moses until the time when Avot was compiled. To each of those fi gures the Mishnah attaches maxims and words of wisdom that they were accustomed to say. These sayings are a valuable source for reconstructing the values and beliefs of early rabbinic Judaism.