Jews in Medieval Christian Europe
Not all of the Byzantine empire was conquered by the Muslims in the seventh century, nor did Muslim forces subdue France and Italy. Instead the Jewish communities of these countries remained under Christian rule. Jews living in the Byzantine empire (Asia Minor, Greece and southern Italy) enjoyed considerable stability, although occasionally they were beset by persecution and forced conversion. However, even in secure periods Byzantine Jewry did not produce scholars and theologians of equal importance to those in other parts of the medieval world.