Jews in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
By 1770 there were approximately 2.25 million Jews world-wide, of whom 1.75 million lived in Christian Europe. In England and Holland the Jewish community was less burdened by economic restrictions - the Dutch and English governments did not interfere in their private or religious affairs. As a result Jews in these countries were restricted solely in those matters that affected all those not in communion with the established Church (such as owning real estate, becoming naturalized citizens and holding office). In Poland
Jews also had considerable freedom and were able to engage in a wide range of economic activities (including the export trade, many crafts, leasing of noble estates, and innkeeping). As in England and Holland, Polish Jewry was left to supervise its own communal affairs.