To construct an adequate theoretical account of the materiality of literacy, the studies presented in this volume suggest, two critical questions must be addressed: How is it that material tools can shape mental processes? And what is the relationship of material tools to the culture in which they are embedded? This chapter examines these questions, summarizes how the results of the studies presented here might help answer them, and suggests some further lines of inquiry for the enterprise of Technology Studies. In addition, I will return to two bodies of existing theory: Vygotskian theory and theories of embodied practice. Although these theories do not specifically address the Technology Question, they can be extended in useful ways to construct a theoretical account of literacy's materiality and its relationship to technology.