Asia-Bashing, A Cultural Oldprop
American diplomacy and propaganda long have been frustrated by Asian cultural barriers. In Japan, the impasses have been brought about by the de facto management of the economy by bureaucracies, the protectionism that shapes trade policies, and uniquely cultural approaches to the negotiation of differences. In China the barriers include an intense trading and political culture that is obsessed with hegemony. Both cultures profess openness, but each practices a political, economic, and cultural hegemony.