URBANISM IN ROMAN ITALY
An alternative to Weber’s analysis has been presented by David Harvey (1988; for a critique see Deutsche 1991; Massey 1991; Wolff 1992, to be read with Smith 1992). This should not be seen as a rejection of Weber’s work
but, rather, as a more sophisticated analysis of the relationship between cities and surplus. Surplus in this context is seen as being social and/or economic. Harvey (1988: 238-40) makes a series of propositions:
1 Cities are built forms created by the mobilisation and geographic concentration of signi cant quantities of a socially de ned surplus product.