Discrimination and Competition among Long-Term Immigrants
An examination of occupational attainment within the four Latino enclave areas shows that Mexicans, Nicaraguans, other Central Americans, and even Colombians are subject to queuing in some labor markets. Compared to the dominant enclave group, the ability of groups to achieve occupational attainment commensurate with the endowments that they bring to the marketplace may be limited by factors related to place of origin. Despite this disadvantage, however, it is possible that Latin American immigrants are still better off in these areas than in other types of enclaves or non-enclave cities. That is, while Mexicans and Central Americans, for example, have significantly lower occupational attainment, on average, than Cubans (or Colombians in New York), these low levels may still be higher than those found in other places.