Ethnic Enclaves and Enclave Theory
In the pioneering work on ethnic enclaves, Wilson and Portes (1980) defined the immigrant enclave as a "self enclosed inner-city minority community." This rudimentary conceptualization of the term enclave remained in use only until the second significant work on the ethnic enclave was published two years later as Wilson and Portes began to diverge on the important defining elements of the term, most notably geographic location and business ownership. Wilson and Martin (1982) expanded the original definition to argue that the economies of these minority communities were "composed of clusters of small businesses which [were] collectively vertically and horizontally integrated" and usually minority owned. Portes, however, dropped the inner-city element and reconceptualized the ethnic enclave more rigorously as a geographically bounded area with a preponderance of employers from the same ethnic group or country of origin and their co-ethnic or co-national workers (Portes & Bach, 1985; Portes & Jensen, 1987, 1989, 1992; Portes & Stepick, 1993; Portes & Rumbaut, 1996).