As earlier chapters have made clear, the Amoy-dialect film industry was initially funded by a small group of businesspeople in Manila and Taiwan, while the creative talent (the actors and those who provided the scripts and music) came from a relatively fixed circle of individuals who had fled to Hong Kong from southern Fujian in the late 1940s. Huang Ying, Oh Tong, Jiang Fan, Lu Hong: the same names and faces featured in almost all of the Amoy-dialect films that were made in the early to mid-1950s. The same few production houses with their highly ‘provincial’ names (Minsheng, Hua Xia, etc.) produced the films. Though the industry catered to audiences from Singapore in the south to Keelung in the north, it remained very much a ‘closed shop’.